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THE HEART VALVE DISEASE

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Definition The heart valve disease is the damage in one of the heart valves such as the mitral valve, aortic, tricuspid and pulmonary. It can disrupt the blood flow to the heart by tissue flopping. The heart valves work by ensuring that blood flows in a forward direction and doesn’t back up or cause leakage. If you have a heart valve disorder, the valve isn’t able to do this job properly. This can be caused by a leakage of blood, which is called regurgitation, a narrowing of the valve opening, which is called stenosis, or a combination of regurgitation and stenosis. Your heart valve disease treatment depends on the heart valve affected and the type and severity of the valve disease. Sometimes heart valve disease requires surgery to repair or replace the heart valve. Epidemiology Valvular heart disease (VHD) is a common condition in clinical practices that are strongly connected to heart dysfunction and death. This explains the important changes in the presentation of valvular disease, …

OSTEOMYELITIS

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Osteomyelitis
Introduction Osteomyelitis is the bone infection that occurs due to the infection of bacteria in the bone. Infection is caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria’s can also cause it. Germs usually infect into the body skin through open wounds and travel to the bone through the bloodstream. Sometimes it will get infected with other infected tissues of the body. Once the microbes infect the bone, the leukocytes from the body will destroy the microbial pathogens and this process release enzyme and this enzyme leads to loss of bone tissue. This reaction leads to a pus formation.

Osteomyelitis Pus from damaged bone The most common bones that affected by osteomyelitis are tibia, femur, humerus, vertebra, the maxilla, and the mandibular bone. In children, osteomyelitis occurs mostly in the long bones of the lower legs and the upper arms. while in adults it affects spine bones. People who have diabetes may also get osteomyelitis in their feet if…

How To Talk To Girls

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How To Talk To Girls















Every guy has been in the same position at some point in his life: He sees an attractive girl and wants to strike up a conversation, but he's just too afraid or nervous to waltz up and jump right in. The more beautiful the girl, the more difficult it is. Yet for many men, just talking to any girl he doesn't know can be an ordeal worse than giving a public speech. This need not be the case, however, because once you know a few rules of thumb, there is no girl in the world you can't approach.


Approach the girl armed without fear of rejection.
 If you are rejected, depending on your taste, there are still other potential dates. Rejection does not mean the end of your dating life, but staying focus on the fear of rejection can limit your confidence Don't fear rejection -- embrace the possibility of acceptance

Learn the secret of confidence.

When walking up to talk to a girl, exude confidence. Walk with your shoulders back and look her in the eye as you …

SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

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Spondyloarthritis
Definition Spondyloarthritis (also known as spondyloarthropathy) is the term which describes the connective tissue diseases. It is the group of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis of the peripheral joints and spine (sacroiliitis or spondylitis); including the area where ligaments and tendons attach to bones (enthesitis or enthesopathy). These diseases cause pain or stiffness in the leg or arm joints, spine, ligaments and tendons become inflamed. Skin rashes, eye, and intestinal problems may also be able to occur. EpidemiologySpondyloarthritis is a pathology that specifically strikes young people. The symptoms most frequently start before the age of 45. It affects more males than females.Predisposition to spondyloarthritis, especially SpA, is determined largely by genetic factors.The incidence rate is higher in populations with a higher prevalence of HLA-B27.Psoriatic skin lesions and colitis due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been considered as…

BINGE EATING

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Binge eating
Introduction Binge eating is an overeating disorder in which an individual eats a large amount of food in a discrete period time and feel uncontrollable over the amount of eating. Unlike Bulimia nervosa, people with BED are not having a purging, fasting, and excessive exercise. As a result of these people with BED habitually become obese or overweight. As people with bulimia nervosa, BED patients also have distorted attitude on their shape, weight, and eating. They also possess mood swings such as personality disorder and depression. PathophysiologyChanges in the cortex of the left orbitofrontal as lesions result in increased volume of the insula, which is non-specific and is the most common in all eating disorders.The increase in the grey matter gyrus rectus pointedly relates mutually to the weight gain and the huge response to sucrose pleasantness.Decreased white matter in the medial temporal lobe and in the parietal lobe is also affiliated with the BED.Causes Since it is…

Ringworm

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Ringworm
Description Ringworm is also called as dermatophytosis, which is a fungal infection that affect that affects skin on the body (Tinea corporis), scalp (Tinea capitis), groin area (Tinea cruris, also called jock itch), or feet (Tinea pedis). This disease is named after the ring type of rash that developed on the skin of infected person or animal. The disease has no correlation with worms. History In the beginning days doctors believed that it is caused by worms and hence it has name ringworm. 1800’s- Ringworm was highly contagious and little known that it is contagious. It is common in poor people who having poor diet and bad hygiene. During this time barbers were able to spread through infected person to another healthy person. It is because of low sanitation in razors and scissors. 1843- David Gruby described a fungus that causes certain ringworm. 1940- Studies started when the United States Military began contracting ringworm while stationed in the South Pacific during World W…

Shigellosis

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Shigellosis
What is Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)? Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella that causes bacterial dysentery. These bacterium cause disease by penetrating the lining of the large intestine, causing swelling and sores. This causes diarrhoea, fever, and stomach cramps 1-2 days after initial exposure. Pathogenesis of shigella The Shigella germ is actually a family of bacteria that can cause diarrhoea in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from person to person. There are several different kinds of Shigella bacteria: Shigella sonnei, accounts for over two-thirds of the shigellosis in the United States. A second type, Shigella flexneri, accounts for almost all of the rest. Other types of Shigella (such as Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella boydii. Shigella in stool sampleEpidemiology On a global scale, of the estimated 165 million Shigella diarrhoeal episodes estimated to occur each year, 99% occur in de…