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The OPISTORCHIASIS

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Opisthorchiasis
Definition Opisthorchiasis is an infection caused by either of the two parasite worms, the cat liver fluke, or scientifically called Opisthorchis felineus  (also known as Opisthorchis tenuicollis), or the Southeast Asian liver fluke (called as Opisthorchis viverrini). The term “fluke” means flatfish, since these parasites are flat. Opistorhoz in fishHistory Major texts state that the human symptoms of the disease Opisthorchiasis was first described in 1875. In 1884, the parasite Opisthorchis felineus was first discovered in cat liver in Northern Italy. In 1891 a Russian scientist, K. N. Vinogradov discovered this parasite in a human and named it the “Siberian liver fluke.” Opisthorchis viverrini is the only parasite that causes Opisthorchiasis in the heavily infected area of Thailand. The first case of Opisthorchiasis in Thailand was discovered in 1911 through autopsy. Epidemiology Opisthorchiasis is prevalent where raw cyprinid fishes are a staple of the diet. Prevalence…

The CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS

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Cryptosporidiosis
Definition Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease caused by microscopic parasites, Cryptosporidium, that can live in the intestine of humans and animals and is passed in the stool of an infected person or animal. Both the disease and the parasite are commonly known as “Crypto.” The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants. During the past 2 decades, Crypto has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne disease (recreational water and drinking water) in humans in the United States. The parasite is found in every region of the United States and throughout the world. History Cryptosporidium was first recognized as a cause of disease in 1976. As methods were developed to analyze stool samples, the protozoa was increasingly reported as the cause of human disease. Crypto was first categorized as a veterinary problem because th…

VAGINITIS

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VAGINITIS
Definition “Vaginitis” is a medical term used to describe various disorders that cause infection or inflammation of the vagina. Vulvovaginitis refers to inflammation of both the vagina and vulva (the external female genitals). These conditions can result from an infection caused by organisms such as bacteria, yeast, or viruses. In addition, irritations from chemicals in creams, sprays, or even clothing that are in contact with this area can result in vaginitis. In some cases, vaginitis results from organisms that are passed between sexual partners and from vaginal dryness and lack of oestrogen. Epidemiology Vaginitis is common in adult women and uncommon in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis accounts for 40-50% of vaginitis cases; vaginal candidiasis, 20-25%; and trichomoniasis, 15-20%. In US women of childbearing age, bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal infection. An estimated 7.4 million new cases of bacterial vaginosis occur each year. National data show that…

TUBERCULOSIS DISEASE

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TUBERCULOSIS
Definition TB is a disease which in humans is usually caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). TB is an abbreviation of the word Tuberculosis and is how people often refer to the disease. Bovine TB is a disease caused by similar bacteria called Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Bovine TB mainly affects cattle but can also affect humans. Just a few years ago it was believed that TB was an old disease, and that it was no longer a problem in humans. But now because of such issues as drug resistance and HIV, it has become a major problem again. History On March 24, 1882, Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). During this time, TB killed one out of every seven people living in the United States and Europe. Dr. Koch’s discovery was the most important step taken toward the control and elimination of this deadly disease. In 1982, a century after Dr. Koch’s announcement, the first…

THE MECONIUM

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                          MECONIUM ASPIRATION
Definition The Meconium aspiration syndrome is a respiratory disorder occurring in the newborn babies. MAS develops when the meconium is inhaled by the babies when they are in the womb or during the labor. Due to which meconium is trapped in the airways and lungs that causes suffocation during respiration. Meconium is a sterile fecal material dark green in color that is produced in the intestine of the fetus before the labor. It consists of intestinal epithelial cells, mucus, lanugo, and intestinal secretions such as bile. Usually, the meconium is expelled out after 1-2 days when the mother starts feeding the baby. In some cases, it comes out from the intestine into the amniotic fluid before the delivery of a baby due to intrauterine stress. In such situation, the meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is aspirated by the fetus into the airways of the lungs. This is known as Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). MAS makes the baby suffer from…

ACNE- Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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                              ACNE DISEASE 
Introduction Acne is a chronic skin disease of hair follicles of the face, chest, neck, shoulders, and back occurs commonly in all teenagers and in some adults during their puberty period. It causes pimples, blackheads, and scars, but not serious. Our skin has tiny pores, which can be occluded by dirt, oil, dead skin cells and bacteria. When this happens pimples or zit may develop on the skin. Repetitions of pore obstruction on the skin may lead to acne.  It begins when the oily substance from the sebaceous glands (oil gland) under the skin blocks the tiny openings of the hair follicles. Acne can appear in several types. Blackheads: If the pore size is larger then the clog appears as blackheads, a small flat spot with its centers as dark in color. In this type, pimples rise on the surface and are non-inflammatory.Whiteheads: If the pore size too small then the clog appears in the form of whiteheads. This type of a pimple stay under the skin su…

POLYCYTHEMIA VERA (PV)

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 POLYCYTHEMIA VERA
Introduction Polycythemia Vera (PV) is a disorder in the bone marrow, which produces a higher volume of red blood cells than the normal production level. This increased production is termed as erythrocytosis. Polycythemia is a group of diseases called myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body. When the RBC levels increases, the blood becomes very much vicious and doesn’t flow ordinarily through blood vessels. Increased in blood thickness and reluctant flow of blood may put you at risk of developing blood clots and restrict oxygen to reach the heart, lungs, brain and other vital parts of the body. This can lead to heart attack, stroke, and blockage of blood flow into the lungs. In some cases of Polycythemia Vera (PV), it is accompanied by too much production of WBC and platelets (Megakaryocyte). This abnormal production is due to the clone of hematopoietic stem cells with high sensitivity to the maturation of different …