Showing posts from November, 2016


Widal Test- Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and LimitationIntroduction of Widal TestWidal Test is an agglutination test which detects the presence of serum agglutinins (H and O) in patients serum with typhoid and paratyphoid fever.When facilities for culturing are not available, the Widal test is the reliable and can be of value in the diagnosis of typhoid fevers in endemic areas. It was developed by Georges Ferdinand Widal in 1896.The patient’s serum is tested for O and H antibodies (agglutinins) against the following antigen suspensions (usually stained suspensions):
S. Typhi 0 antigen suspension, 9, 12
S. Typhi H antigen suspension, dS. Paratyphi A 0 antigen suspension, 1, 2, 12
S. Paratyphi A H antigen suspension, a
S. Paratyphi B 0 antigen suspension, 1, 4, 5, 12
S. Paratyphi B H antigen suspension, b, phase 1
S. Paratyphi C 0 antigen suspension, 6, 7
S. Paratyphi C H antigen suspension, c, phase 1Salmonella antibody starts appearing in serum at the end of first week …


Fungi as Human Pathogens Introduction
Fungi that are pathogens are usually plant pathogenic Fungi. There are comparatively few species that are pathogenic to animals, especially mammals. According to Hawksworth (1992), there are approximate a little 1.5 million described species of fungi. A little more than 400 of these species are known to cause disease in animals, and far fewer of these species will specifically cause disease in people. Many of the latter will only be superficial types of diseases that are more of a cosmetic than a health problem. Thus, there are not many species of fungi that are pathogenic to human that will be fatal. The study of Fungi as animal and human pathogens is medical mycology. There is also such a thing as veterinary mycology, but the types of diseases that are found in your pets often are the same as those that are found in people. Because of the rarity of human diseases caused by Fungi, most people have little, if any, knowledge of such diseases.
The dise…


Stomach Ulcer

What is a stomach ulcer? Stomach ulcers are painful sores that can be found in the stomach lining or small intestine. Stomach ulcers are the most visible sign of peptic ulcerdisease. They occur when the thick layer of mucus that protects your stomach from digestive juices is reduced, thus enabling the digestive acids to eat away at the lining tissues of the stomach. Stomach ulcers are easily cured, but they can become severe without proper treatment. What causes stomach ulcers? Stomach ulcers aren’t necessarily caused by one single factor. The decrease in the stomach’s mucus lining that leads to an ulcer is usually caused by one of the following: an infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofenexcess acid (hyperacidity) in the stomach, which may be related to genetics, lifestyle (stress, smoking), and certain foodsZollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disease that makes …