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RICKETTSIAE

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RICKETTSIAE DISEASES

INFECTIOUS AGENTS
Rickettsial infections are caused by a variety of bacteria from the genera Rickettsia, Orientia, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Neoehrlichia, and Anaplasma (Table 3-18). Rickettsia spp. are classically divided into the typhus group and spotted fever group (SFG). Orientia spp. make up the scrub typhus group. The rickettsial pathogens most likely to be encountered during travel outside the United States include R. africae (African tick-bite fever), R. conorii (Mediterranean spotted fever), R. rickettsii (known as both Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Brazilian spotted fever), O. tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus), and R. typhi (murine typhus).
TRANSMISSION Most rickettsial pathogens are transmitted by ectoparasites such as fleas, lice, mites, and ticks. Organisms can be transmitted by bites from these ectoparasites or by the inoculation of infectious fluids or feces from the ectoparasites into the skin. Inhaling or inoculating conjunctiva with infectious materia…

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

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CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Patient CommentsRead 40 CommentsShare Your Story Normal kidneys and kidney function The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that lie on either side of the spine in the lower middle of the back.Each kidney weighs about 5 ounces and contains approximately one million filtering units called nephrons.Each nephron is made of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus is a miniature filtering or sieving device while the tubule is a tiny tube like structure attached to the glomerulus.The kidneys are connected to the urinary bladder by tubes called ureters. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until the bladder is emptied by urinating. The bladder is connected to the outside of the body by another tube like structure called the urethra. Illustration of the kidneys, urinary tract, and bladder. The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess water from the blood. The kidneys process about 200 liters of blood every d…